TIL There’s no evidence that Neanderthal females bred with Sapien males, perchance because: it led to mutations that caused the offspring’s extinction; hybrid offspring of Neanderthal mothers became extinct with them; or female Neanderthals and male Sapiens did not produce fertile offspring

Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interbreeding_between_archaic_and_modern_humans

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  1. Apologies for the incomplete title, it got too large when all the facts were included.

    >No evidence of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA has been found in modern humans.[29][30][31] This suggests that successful Neanderthal admixture happened in pairings with Neanderthal males and modern human females.[32][33] Possible hypotheses are that Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA had detrimental mutations that led to the extinction of carriers, that the hybrid offspring of Neanderthal mothers were raised in Neanderthal groups and became extinct with them, or that female Neanderthals and male Sapiens did not produce fertile offspring.[32] However, the hypothesized incompatibility between Neanderthals and modern humans is contested by findings that suggest that the Y chromosome of Neanderthals was replaced by an extinct lineage of the modern human Y chromosome, which introgressed into Neanderthals between 100,000 and 370,000 years ago.[34] Furthermore, the study concludes that the replacement of the Y chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA in Neanderthals after gene flow from modern humans is highly plausible given the increased genetic load in Neanderthals relative to modern humans.[34]

    >As shown in an interbreeding model produced by Neves and Serva (2012), the Neanderthal admixture in modern humans may have been caused by a very low rate of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals, with the exchange of one pair of individuals between the two populations in about every 77 generations.[35] This low rate of interbreeding would account for the absence of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA from the modern human gene pool as found in earlier studies, as the model estimates a probability of only 7% for a Neanderthal origin of both mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome in modern humans

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